These elegant-looking perennial ferns, preferring acid soil and partial shade, are likely to be found on wooded slopes and ravine bottoms that are moist. They “brown-up” early in summer when they are too dry. Northern Maidenhair Fern or Adantium pedatum is the Eastern North American native of this genus growing world-wide that has nearly two hundred different species in it. I love looking for their circular patterns of horizontal fronds and bright green leaflets divided into little fan shapes! They are lacy and delicate. The shiny black stems holding them all together are a great clue when trying to identify Maidenhair Fern, and thus, the name. And they are tough! They were used by Native Americans in their basket-making. With many other ferns, there is an observable difference between fertile fronds carrying spores and non-fertile fronds without them. Not so with Maidenhair! Their foliage looks the same until you turn one over and find little sori curled up on underside edges behind the vein tips of the leaflet. Though tiny and tucked away, wind will disperse the spores to grow into heart-shaped gametophytes responsible for sexual reproduction and creation of the next generation of ferns. Over time, they will grow into colonies, spread by their underground rhizomes. In spring, look for the pinkish-brown crosiers or shepherd’s crooks pushing up. Return trips are a must…to see them gracefully unfurl!
The Pennsylvania Department of
Conservation and Natural Resources (DCNR) Secretary Cindy Adams joined the
Northcentral Pennsylvania Conservancy (NPC) and local supporters for a
dedication ceremony at the Phelps Mills Canoe Launch on Pine Creek in the
Tiadaghton State Forest in Pine Creek Township, Clinton County just across the Creek
from the borough of Jersey Shore.
“The story of the Phelps Mills
Canoe Launch is a testament to the power of collaboration and the impact it can
have providing recreational opportunities in our communities,” Dunn said.
“Thank you to NPC, its volunteers, George and Shirley Durrwachter, and everyone
who helped make this project a reality.”
The ceremony formally welcomed
Phelps Mill Canoe Launch on Pine Creek under the Bureau of Forestry umbrella.
Although the canoe launch has been a managed as a part of Tiadaghton State
Forest since late 2019 when DCNR purchased the property from NPC, the obeservance
on June 25, 2021 allowed the project partners to come together and celebrate
what they achieved.
NPC was able to purchase the
property and conduct environmental assessments due to a generous donation from
Dr. George and Shirley Durrwachter.
“Having this boat launch available
to local residents will allow them to traverse the creek and the river to
downtown Jersey Shore,” George Durrwachter said. “Creating recreational
opportunities closer to where people live is important not only because of time
constraints but it will also reduce congestion on the highways.”
In addition to the donation from
the Durrwachters to acquire the land, NPC secured grants and support from the
Western Pennsylvania Canoe Access Fund and the Clinton County Tourism and Recreation
Fund to support improvements at the canoe launch.
The improvements were completed in
August 2020 and helped stabilize the canoe launch, improve the walking surface,
improve the parking lot, and replace the gate with a bollard to make it easier
to carry canoes and kayaks down the path.
The black lab who showed up just
as the group photo was wrapping up wasn’t planned, but was perfectly timed. The
lab had his stick and headed straight to the water, running down the improved
pathway, and launched into the Creek.
Thank you again to George and
Shirley for their support that made this possible! Thank you also to Carl
Barlett for speaking on behalf of NPC and Commissioner Jeff Snyder for his remarks
on behalf of the Clinton County Tourism and Recreation Fund and the Clinton
We hope you enjoy rivers all summer long! If you want to check out this access, the address is 1019 E. Central Ave., Jersey Shore, PA (but you’re on the west side of the Creek/the Avis side, not the east side of the Creek/the Jersey Shore side).
I hope you are familiar with the native plant
Jack-in-the-pulpit because I would like to introduce you to Jack’s less
well-known relative in the same genus – Green Dragon. Arisaema dracontium,
also a member of the Arum Family with Jack, is a native perennial plant that
lives in the rich ground of low woods and flood plains.
The first one I ever found was along the muddy edge of
the West Branch Susquehanna River, downstream from the Ellmaker Boat Landing in
Montoursville. Green Dragons like dappled sunlight when they first appear in
the spring and then more shade later on. That had happened quite naturally as
the sycamores and silver maples leafed out over them there.
Each plant has a single leaf made up of five to fifteen smooth, oval leaflets and a single naked stem topped with its inflorescence or flowers, both arising from an underground tuberous corm. The unusual leaf usually grabs my eye first because it looks like the palm of a hand with too many fingers, swirling around the stem. Then I peek under it, and there is a dragon’s tongue!
Start at the very tip of the “tongue” and travel down four to ten inches and you will find the flowers at its base like little greenish-yellow balls hugged by the spathe, a leaf-like bract that partially surrounds them and allows the dragon’s tongue to ascend out the top. Fungus gnats attend to pollinate them, turning the flower column into a red-orange club made up of at least a hundred pear-shaped berries containing one to three seeds…treats for wild turkeys. Don’t try them yourself – they contain enough calcium oxalate to burn your mouth and, if eaten, cause severe gastric distress and kidney damage.
Look for the Green Dragon now. It will fly away… I mean
It’s summer – geranium time! The Geraniaceae Family name comes from the word “geranos” which means “a crane” in Greek. The long-beaked seed capsules of these plants stick up in the air when dry and resemble a crane’s bill. Some members of the family actually have Cranesbill as a common name.
Two native geraniums I have discovered growing locally are Wood geraniums and Herb-robert. These are not the big brightly-colored hanging basket varieties from the garden store, but live tucked in shadier spots in the woods with flowers of pale pink and lavender.
Wood Geranium or Geranium maculatum, has basal leaves with five to seven lobes. The flowers are on a stem by themselves that comes straight up from the rhizome or root of the plant and have just a single pair of smaller leaves under their small cluster of five-petaled pink blossoms. Wood Geraniums are common in woods and field edges and can reach two feet in height. Their leaves were used by Native Americans as external astringent and to stop bleeding.
Herb-robert or Geranium robertianum is smaller and, well, seems more delicate to me with its deeply-dissected leaflets growing outward from hand-shaped leaves that turn red at the end of flowering. These plants have reddish hairy stems that branch and spread out in a lovely fashion. One of the common names for Herb-robert is “stinking bob” which should give you a clue to the strong pungent scent given off by the leaves and branches when they are touched. So much for delicate! The five-petaled pink to purple flowers grow on the branches, nestled among all of the leaves and really are small and delicate. Medicinally, Herb-robert was used for skin irritations and bruises. Could this plant have been around when the continents were pulled apart? It is listed as native to Europe, parts of Asia, North Africa and North America!
As above, so below. Looking downward, I saw the stars! Five to nine smooth, lance-shaped leaves were whorled around a thin stem, some in double tiers, looking like stars scattered about on the shady forest floor. The Indian Cucumber Root (Medeola virginiana) I found along the Double Run Nature Trail at Worlds End was blooming…a delightful experience to behold!
Greenish-yellow flowers, one or two, hang on drooping stems beneath circles of leaves, their petals curved back showing their long, brown styles that carry pollen to the ovaries where purple to black berries will eventually form. Parallel leaf veins speak to their ties with the Lily Family, Lilaceae. The cucumber part of the common name comes from the two to three inch long tuberous white root that smells and tastes like cucumbers. Native Americans gathered them as food, a labor not recommended today because of the scarcity of this native plant.
There were other “stars” in the Double Run
woods that day, June 12, 2021. DCNR Secretary Cindy Adams Dunn, Deputy
Secretary for Parks and Forestry John Norbeck, Worlds End Park employees and
Friends of the Park were there along with others who gathered to witness the
dedication and induction of the park’s 780 acres into the Old-Growth Forest
Network. Dr. Joan Maloof, founder and
director of the network presented a commemorative sign and spoke about the
importance of protecting older forests, at least one in every county of every
state in the US, building not only a network of forests, but also an alliance of
people who care about forests. Eighteen PA counties have old-growth forests
placed in the network so far. Article 1, Section 27 of the Pennsylvania State
Constitution states that people have a right to clean air, pure water, and the
preservation of the natural, scenic, historic, and esthetic values of the
environment. DCNR as a caretaker of these resources for citizens now and
generations to come, sees the conservation and maintenance of them as their
Students in the Life Skills Classes at Jersey Shore Elementary recently raised $400 to donate to the Northcentral Pennsylvania Conservancy. The students sold coffee, tea, and other drinks plus homemade snacks they prepared to the staff of the elementary school to raise the funds. Cindy Ferguson, MS CCC-SP, of Jersey Shore Area School District, stated, “The classes under the guidance of their teachers, Ms. Liddic and Mrs. Woleslagle, and support staff are very conservation focused and sponsor Earth Day projects within the school and community. We are so very proud of their dedication and generosity.”
The students’ donation to the Northcentral Pennsylvania Conservancy will support the non-profits ongoing efforts to conserve and enhance the lands and waters of Northcentral Pennsylvania for the environmental well-being and recreational needs of our local communities.
Photo courtesy of Cindy Ferguson, Jersey Shore Area School District.
Squawroot is a strange and wonderful plant that I knew only from photos in plant books. In late fall of 2020, my plant buddy Debbie and I came upon what looked like its sad remains. Wild and crazy, I jumped up and down, wahooing! Then, the waiting began. Finally, after three visits this spring, I found it had finally shouldered its way up through the pile of oak leaves that had blanketed it over winter. And, here it is!
A member of the Orobanchaceae or Broom-rape Family, known for being parasitic herbs without chlorophyll. Squawroot, Conopholis americana, is a native ranging from eastern Canada to Florida. Its genus name comes from the scales it has instead of leaves (pholis) and when dried it resembles evergreen tree cones (conos). Most of this plant’s biomass is underground where it develops for four years before emerging to bloom. It develops swollen knobs as its root system attaches to an oak root and slowly receives from the sap enough nourishment and energy to reproduce. Its flowers are cream-colored in dense fleshy unbranched spikes.
It is a perennial plant that will live up to ten years in forests where its presence and relative abundance may indicate the forest’s age and stability. Native American usage of it was for menopause symptoms and reproductive problems. Amazingly, Squawroot has estrogen-like properties that doctors today would use for just such conditions. Its flowers are pollinated by flies and bumblebees and become food for deer and bears. Where conditions are right…shady, oak-forested sites, large colonies often flourish.
With the official start of summer just around the corner, heat waves already upon us, and the end of the school year, many Pennsylvanians turn to their local waterways to cool off and have fun throughout the season. That’s why the month of June is also such a fitting time to celebrate Rivers Month in the commonwealth. Rivers Month is an opportunity to celebrate our river resources, consider the importance those resources have on our everyday lives, and acknowledge what we can do to help conserve those resources for generations to come.
Creating and Enhancing Access to our Waterways
Pennsylvania is home to 86,000 miles of rivers, streams, and creeks (second in the United States only to Alaska!), so there is certainly a lot to celebrate! From boating and paddling to swimming, fishing, and tubing – whatever your preferred way to enjoy the water is – chances are there’s a prime spot to do it right here in our Northcentral haven of the state! For over 3 decades, NPC members have been helping to make easier access for these recreational opportunities. Here are just a few!
The conservation of the Baker Run property allowed for the creation of a new public access canoe/kayak launch site to the West Branch Susquehanna River. Baker Run is a tributary to the Susquehanna River, between Lock Haven and Renovo. The section of the West Branch Susquehanna from the PA Fish and Boat Commission access at Hyner, downstream to the access in Woodward Township’s Park (on the North Side of the Jay Street Bridge at Lock Haven) is about twenty-one river-miles long – a pretty lengthy paddle for most! The conservation of this land and installation of the launch between the two points helped eliminate the “recreation barrier”, creating opportunity for more people to enjoy the river.
Harrigan Island is in the Susquehanna River near Athens. The original owners of the island encouraged canoe travelers to camp on the island. To help ensure that others could enjoy this same simple pleasure for years to come, they worked with the NPC to permanently conserve the land. Today, Harrigan Island is part of the Loyalsock State Forest.
Phelps’ Mills Canoe Access
For years, people had used this property on the Avis side of the Route 150 bridge over Pine Creek to paddle, fish, swim, and cool off all summer long. So, when the property, previously under private ownership, came up for sale in 2019, NPC stepped in to help in ensure that this favored, local watering hole remained available for the public to enjoy for generations to come!
Most recently, the site was officially named the Phelps’ Mills Canoe Access (formerly referred to as the Avis Canoe Launch), as a nod to the large grist and saw mills that used to occupy the area, manufacturing boards, shingles, laths, palings, among other materials, that helped develop the northcentral PA region.
Pine Creek flows into the West Branch Susquehanna River. Consider enjoying this section of the river this summer by paddling from the Phelps’ Mills Canoe Access to the Jersey Shore River Access!
Conserving the Health of our Rivers
Beyond recreation, healthy rivers provide habitat, drinking water, replenish groundwater, help moderate floods and droughts, support forest health, and more!
As part of the Northcentral Stream Partnership, NPC is helping to conserve and strengthen the health of our rivers by stabilizing eroding streambanks and improving aquatic habitat on agriculturally impaired streams across the region. The Partnership’s sustained efforts to bring the waterways of Northcentral PA back to health while maintaining a working agricultural landscape is currently being used as a model to help improve water quality throughout the entire Chesapeake Bay.
Once I found and identified Wild Sarsaparilla, Aralia nudicaulis, it seemed to be everywhere, dancing back through the understory as far as I could see! So common, in fact, that in some environments, it may serve as an indicator species for its native Northern Hardwood Forests of Oak and Hickory, Beech and Maple.
In early spring, this plant shoots straight up from its woody, underground rhizome a smooth stalk or peduncle, with a curled bronze leaf that unfurls, greener and pinnately compound, having three smaller stems each with from three to seven tiny-toothed leaflets. Next, up comes another smooth stalk carrying just the flowers, usually three globe-shaped constellations of twenty to forty greenish-white five-petaled flowers that mostly stay hidden beneath the leaf.
The fleshy fruits that appear after pollination ripen to a rich deep purple, almost black during the fall. Birds like grouse and thrushes eat the berries, as well as foxes and chipmunks. Deer browse the leaves. Native Americans used the plant for food, tea and medicine, poulticing its leaves for treatment of wounds and sores.
Wild Sarsaparilla is a member of the Ginseng Family, not to be confused with another plant of the same common name, but a woody, prickly vine whose scientific name is Smilax ornata, a member of the Smilax or Catbrier Family. Both plants have been used as flavorings in soft drinks.
This herbaceous native has had a whole lot of names, common and scientific! So far, it has been identified as a member of three different families. As luck would have it, DNA evidence landed it back in one of them – LILIACEAE – the Lily Family!
Trilliums just don’t have the expected lily-like parallel veins on their leaves, but rather netted ones, that crisscross and meet up again across their surface. Each common name of Red Trillium helps describe some aspect of the plant. “Wake-robin” harkens its standout red bloom to the early arriving robin. “Stinking Benjamin” tells of the malodorous scent of its single flower used to attract carrion flies and beetles to pollinate it. “Birthwort” reminds us that its root was once used in tea made for new mothers. The “tri” in trillium is for three – three triangular-shaped leaves, three red to purple petals, three greenish-red sepals that protected the bud before it opened and remain under the petals.
This species of trillium has an erect stem, “erectum”, up to four inches long, holding the flower head above the leaves. It does have the habit of curling back down under the leaves, so you sometimes have to look under to find the flower. I discovered this flower near a woods road in the state forest where Laurel and Rhododendrons grow in rich wet to dry acid soil.
An ephemeral plant, Trillium can grow to twenty-four inches in height even with its short life cycle: blooming from April to June, setting seed, then dying back to its rhizomes underground for the rest of the year. This is how Trillium takes advantage of the high levels of early spring sunlight before the trees above leaf-out and block it. Smart!